2 edition of Surface mining of minerals other than coal found in the catalog.
Surface mining of minerals other than coal
Virginia Advisory Legislative Council
by Commonwealth of Virginia, Dept. of Purchases and Supply in Richmond
Written in English
|Series||House document Commonwealth of Virginia ; no. 9, House document (Virginia. General Assembly. House of Delegates) ;, 1976, no. 9.|
|LC Classifications||J87 .V9 1976c no. 9, KFV2655.5 .V9 1976c no. 9|
|The Physical Object|
|Pagination||26 p. ;|
|Number of Pages||26|
|LC Control Number||77621516|
Extensive surface mining is a much more recent development in coal mining than underground mining. The procedure, which consists of removing the soil and rock overlying the coal seam(s) and subsequently extracting the coal, relies on having equipment of sufficient size and power to remove the overburden in a cost-effective manner. Although both underground and surface coal mining harm the environment, the externalities associated with surface mining are generally greater. Although surface mining is only feasible when the coal seams are near the surface, the technique accounts for 67 percent of coal production in the United States (U.S. Department of Energy, ).
Wyoming, the country's dominant surface mining state, has 17 surface mines that produced million short tons of coal in This represented 49 percent of all surface-mined coal and 1. Surface Mining Surface Mining Operation Surface mining is a form of mining operation popularly practiced all over the world for extracting minerals that occur near the surface, including such metallic minerals as copper, iron, gold and bauxite and such non-metallic minerals as coal and phosphate.
But the game changed in the s, when mining operations started in Wyoming's Powder River Basin, where coal seams are far thicker—up to feet—and closer to the surface than . Placer mining occurs on a much smaller scale than other methods of surface mining. Whereas other methods go straight to the source of the valuable material, the sought-after materials in placer mining have already been removed from their source by natural processes of erosion and weathering and have been carried downstream.
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This SME classic is both a reference book for the working engineer and a textbook for the mining student. This hardcover edition gives a brief history of surface mining and a general overview of the state of surface mining today--topics range from production and productivity to technological developments and trends in equipment.
This extremely useful text takes the approach that 5/5(4). Get this from a library. Regulation of surface mining and reclamation for minerals other than coal: a report to the President and the Surface mining of minerals other than coal book, pursuant to section of the Surface Mining Control and Reclamation Act of [Council on Environmental Quality (U.S.)].
Surface mining, including strip mining, open-pit mining and mountaintop removal mining, is a broad category of mining in which soil and rock overlying the mineral deposit (the overburden) are removed, in contrast to underground mining, in which the overlying rock is left in place, and the mineral is removed through shafts or tunnels.
Surface mining began in the midth century. Download a PDF of "Surface Mining of Non-Coal Minerals" by the National Research Council for free. A PDF is a digital representation of the print book, so while it can be loaded into most e-reader programs, it doesn't allow for resizable text or advanced, interactive functionality.
The National Academies Press and the Transportation. Get this from a library. Environmental effects of surface mining of minerals other than coal: annotated bibliography and summary report.
[Bland Z Richardson; Marilyn Marshall Pratt; Intermountain Forest and Range Experiment Station (Ogden, Utah)] -- Deze bibliografie werd samengesteld op verzoek van het "Committee on Surface Mining and Reclamation".
Mining Methods: Part I-Surface mining. Land and other necessary rights should be checked, T ypical example s of this type of mining are the larger tonna ge coal mining operations in.
When coal seams are near the surface, it may be economical to extract the coal using open cut (also referred to as open cast, open pit, mountaintop removal or strip) mining methods. Opencast coal mining recovers a greater proportion of the coal deposit than underground methods, as more of the coal seams in the strata may be exploited.
This equipment can include the following:. Mining is the extraction of valuable minerals or other geological materials from the Earth, usually from an ore body, lode, vein, seam, reef or placer deposits form a mineralized package that is of economic interest to the miner.
Ores recovered by mining include metals, coal, oil shale, gemstones, limestone, chalk, dimension stone, rock salt, potash, gravel, and clay. Surface mining is a form of mining in which the soil and the rock covering the mineral deposits are removed. It is the other way of underground mining, in which the overlying rock is left behind, and the required mineral deposits are removed through shafts or tunnels.
Our friends at AZO Mining provide some additional context. STRUCTURE OF MINERALS AND MINING SECTOR The Ministry of Mines (MoM), Government of India is responsible for the entire minerals and mining sector in the country that includes legislation, administration, policy formulation etc.
in respect of all mines and minerals other than coal and lignite, natural gas and petroleum, but including offshore. mining: Open-pit mining Deposits mined by open-pit techniques are generally divided into horizontal layers called benches.
The thickness (that is, the height) of the benches depends on the type of deposit, the mineral being mined, and the equipment being used; for large mines it. Other surface mining definitions. As used in this chapter: (A) "Surface mining" means all or any part of a process followed in the production of minerals from the earth or from the surface of the land by surface excavation methods, such as open pit mining, dredging, placering, or quarrying, and includes the removal of overburden for the purpose of determining the location.
However, surface mining can be more environmentally-damaging than subsurface mining. Types of Surface Mining Open-Pit Mining. Known also as “open-cast mining”, open-pit mining is the most common type of surface mining.
Open-pit mines are enormous holes in the ground; created and increased by blasting and drilling rocks apart. UNESCO – EOLSS SAMPLE CHAPTERS CIVIL ENGINEERING – Vol. II - Surface Mining Methods and Equipment - J.
Yamatomi and S. Okubo ©Encyclopedia of Life Support Systems (EOLSS) Figure 2. Change in production and productivity of US coal mines The higher productivity for open pit mining equipment also lowers costs.
Chapter (PDF Available) May w Reads. How we measure 'reads' A 'read' is counted each time someone views a publication summary.
Start studying Quiz Chapter Learn vocabulary, terms, and more with flashcards, games, and other study tools. Search. Surface mining techniques are used to extract ____% of the coal used in the United States.
a b c minerals faster so the mining processes do not pollute the air for as long a time period. Surface mining, method of extracting minerals near the surface of the Earth. The three most common types of surface mining are open-pit mining, strip mining, and quarrying.
See also mining and coal mining. Bisbee: Lavender Pit The Lavender Pit, a former open-pit copper mine, Bisbee, Ariz.
Cornellrockey. Read More on This Topic. COAL LOADING, HAULING, AND HANDLING Surface mining coal recovery varies from about 80 percent in the thin eastern and midwestern seams to tetter than 95 percent in the thick western seams.
After the overburden is removed, some coal seams may be mined directly with shovels, but in most cases, holes from 3 to 6 inches in diameter are drilled. Mining processes accumulate a large amount of overburden that can eventually bury or pollute waterways Mining resources are used in the construction of roads and buildings The mining process depends on the renewable resources found in the Earth's lithosphere Health hazards, oil spills, and soil degradation are all side effects of mining.
and byproduct chemical recovery among other uses. In the eastern United States, coal is often mined underground, where risks of gas buildup cannot be tolerated.
In the western United States, more coal is strip mined. Water use in coal mining varies according to the method of mining, the equipment used, and the availability of water. Underground. In-situ leaching (ISL)/ Solution mining Solution mining (in-situ recovery) = resources in a deep deposit are dissolved in a liquid and siphoned out.
Salts, lithium, boron, bromine, potash, copper, uranium. Less environmental impact than other methods: Less surface area is disturbed. Acids, heavy metals, uranium can accidentally leak.
2 February.These minerals and other less common minerals usually contain the bulk of the trace elements present in coal the effects of coal mining and coal use on surface water, ground water, and air quality.
ASTM International,Coal and coke, in Annual book of ASTM standards, section 5, Petroleum products, lubricants.This law provided for the leasing of minerals from public lands including oil, gas, coal and other non-energy leasable minerals such as phosphates and sodium.
It requires that a royalty be paid on amounts mined and sold. Materials Act of This law provides for the disposal of mining materials on public lands, both saleable and leasable.